The city as a system

Describe the city as a system in terms of:

  • inputs—energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)

  • outputs—solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people.

Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs.

The City as a Linear System