As an introduction and review of issues covered in the Core I would recommend this film. Please click the image below to launch the film on the YouTube site.

The Core is the foundation of the IB course. During lessons we look at many issues that are challenges for countries today. The focus of the course is not simply looking at theory but constantly looking at real life situations throughout the world. As such we focus on five countries mainly throughout the core these are:


Definitions of Key Terms

The IBO has given these key terms that students should know.

Term Definition

Core and periphery

The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales.

Ecological footprint

The theoretical measurement of the amount of land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its waste under prevailing technology.

Global climate change

The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level, habitats and the incidences of droughts, floods and storms, resulting from changes in the Earth?s atmosphere, believed to be mainly caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect.


Gross national income (now used in preference to gross national product?GNP). The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries.


The movement of people, involving a change of residence. It can be internal or external (international) and voluntary or forced. It does not include temporary circulations such as commuting or tourism.


Transfers of money/goods by foreign workers to their home countries.

Soil degradation

A severe reduction in the quality of soils. The term includes soil erosion, salinization and soil exhaustion (loss of fertility).

Water scarcity

Can be defined as:

  • physical water scarcity, where water resource development is approaching or has exceeded unsustainable levels; it relates water availability to water demand and implies that arid areas are not necessarily water scarce

  • economic water scarcity, where water is available locally but not accessible for human, institutional or financial capital reasons.


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